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我们到底需要喝多少水?

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2020年05月22日

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How much water do we really need to drink?

我们到底需要喝多少水?

Here's some welcome news: Water can work wonders for your health.

这里有一些好消息:水可以为你的健康创造奇迹。

The humble liquid comprises about 60% of our body weight and allows our internal organs to perform at their best. Water regulates our body temperature, keeps our joints lubricated and carries nutrients to our cells. Water also provides moisture to skin, ensuring a bright and radiant glow.

这种不起眼的液体约占我们体重的60%,让我们的内脏器官发挥最佳功能。水可以调节我们的体温,保持关节的润滑,并将营养物质运送到我们的细胞。水也提供水分给皮肤,确保明亮和容光焕发。

我们到底需要喝多少水?

Even mild dehydration can be a physical stressor to the body, according to Melissa Majumdar, a registered dietitian and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. If we're not adequately hydrated, we may experience nausea and loss of appetite, and may find it difficult to concentrate and perform physical tasks, like carrying groceries or lifting weights.

美国营养与饮食学会的注册营养师兼发言人梅丽莎·马强达尔表示,即使是轻微的脱水也会给身体带来压力。如果我们没有足够的水分,我们可能会感到恶心和食欲不振,并且可能会发现很难集中精力完成体力活动,比如提东西或举重。

So it's important to drink water. That much we know. And these days, while we stay at home with our reusable cups and convenient access to bathrooms, there's no good reason not to be drinking water.

所以喝水很重要。我们就知道这些。如今,当我们呆在家里用着可重复使用的杯子和方便去卫生间的时候,没有理由不喝水。

But how much is enough?

但是多少才算够呢?

Water recommendations

关于水的建议

The Institute of Medicine recommends that women aim to consume 2.7 liters (or 91 ounces) of fluids daily, and men drink 3.7 liters (or 125 ounces). But thst recommendation doesn't focus on water specifically. Rather, it includes all fluids and water-rich foods, including fruits, vegetables and soups.

医学研究所建议女性每天喝2.7升(或91盎司)液体,男性每天喝3.7升(或125盎司)液体。但是这个建议并没有明确说水。相反,它包括所有富含水分的食物,包括水果、蔬菜和汤。

Considering that about 80% of our water intake comes from fluids and about 20% from foods, that breaks down to a daily goal of about 9 cups (or 72 ounces) of fluids for females and 12½ cups (or 100 ounces) for males.

考虑到我们大约80%的水摄入量来自液体,大约20%来自食物,这就分解为一个每日目标:女性约9杯(或72盎司)液体,男性约12.5杯(或100盎司)。

我们到底需要喝多少水?

"It's a very general recommendation," explained Majumdar, who pointed out that factors like activity level, body composition and even climate all play a role in one's water needs.

马强达尔解释说:“这是一个非常普遍的建议。”他指出,活动水平、身体组成甚至气候等因素都对人体的需水量有影响。

"If you are a long-distance runner and lose a lot of fluid through sweat, particularly in hot, humid conditions, you will need much more water than [a] weekend warrior who is doing a short jog in the gym."

“如果你是一名长跑运动员,通过出汗流失了大量水分,尤其是在炎热潮湿的环境中,你需要的水分要比在健身房进行短距离慢跑的周末战士多得多。”

Additionally, since muscle cells have a higher concentration of water than fat cells, someone with more lean muscle mass will have higher water needs — and may need to consume more water — than someone with more fat mass.

此外,由于肌肉细胞比脂肪细胞水浓度更高,肌肉质量较低的人比脂肪质量较高的人需要更多的水,而且可能需要消耗更多的水。

"A leaner person requires more water," Majumdar said, though she noted "they are probably more active anyway and will be drinking more as a result."

“瘦人需要更多的水,” 马强达尔说,尽管她指出“他们可能更活跃,因此会喝更多的水。”

Other factors to consider include pregnancy and breastfeeding, both of which increase fluid needs, as well as illness and extreme temperatures (both hot and cold).

其他需要考虑的因素包括怀孕和哺乳,这两者都会增加液体需求,以及疾病和在极端温度下(包括热和冷)。

What counts as water

什么才算水

While water is often the default beverage of choice for many nutritionists, other beverages can be included as part of your daily fluid intake, such as nutrient-rich milk, seltzer and even coffee and tea.

虽然水通常是许多营养学家的默认饮料,但其他饮料也可以作为日常液体摄入的一部分,比如营养丰富的牛奶、苏打水,甚至咖啡和茶。

我们到底需要喝多少水?

While it's a misconception that coffee and tea cause extra fluid loss from the body and are dehydrating, alcohol does have a diuretic effect and can increase the risk for dehydration.

虽然认为咖啡和茶会导致身体额外流失水分和脱水是一种误解,但酒精确实有利尿作用,会增加脱水的风险。

"Alcohol will pull out other fluids," Majumdar said, "but coffee and tea provide fluid and are hydrating."

马强达尔说:“酒精会带走其他液体,但咖啡和茶能提供液体,并使人补水。”

Dairy or non-dairy milks can deliver important nutrients like protein, calcium and vitamin D. Even though a sugar-containing cola can technically hydrate, "for health and wellness, it's best to avoid sugar-containing beverages as much as possible," Majumdar said.

牛奶或非牛奶都能提供重要的营养物质,如蛋白质、钙和维生素d。尽管含糖可乐在技术上是可以补水的,“为了健康,最好尽量避免含糖饮料,” 马强达尔说。


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